Difference between revisions of "Language - C"

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__TOC__
 
__TOC__
  
==Introduction==
+
== Introduction ==
  
{{LanguageSupport|C/C++|the complete Phidget API, including events|all Phidget devices.|Windows XP/Vista/7/8(environments include [[#Visual Studio | Visual Studio]], [[#Borland | Borland]], [[#Cygwin/MinGW | Cygwin, and MinGW]]), [[#Windows CE | Windows CE]], [[#OS X | OS X]], and [[#Linux | Linux]]|}}
+
If this is your first time working with a Phidget, we suggest starting with the Getting Started page for your specific device. This can be found in the user guide for your device. That page will walk you through installing drivers and libraries for your operating system, and will then bring you back here to use C/C++ specifically.
 +
C/C++ is capable of using the complete Phidget API, including events. We also provide example code in C/C++ for all Phidget devices.
  
==Quick Downloads==
+
C/C++ can be developed with Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10 (environments include Visual Studio, Borland, Cygwin, and MinGW), OS X, and Linux.
{{QuickDownloads|C/C++|
+
You can compare C/C++ with our other supported languages.
{{APIQuickDownloads|{{SERVER}}/documentation/Phidget21_C_Doc.zip}}
+
{{ExtraAPIQuickDownloads|{{SERVER}}/documentation/web/cdoc/index.html|HTML Version of}}|
+
*[{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/VCpp.zip Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010 Projects]
+
*[{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz All other compilers]|
+
{{ExtraLibraryQuickDownloads|{{SERVER}}/downloads/libraries/phidget21bcc.zip|Borland(Windows)|}}
+
{{WindowsQuickDownloads}}
+
{{MacQuickDownloads}}
+
{{LinuxQuickDownloads}}
+
}}
+
  
==Getting started with C/C++==
+
== Quick Downloads ==
 +
 
 +
'''<span style="color:#FF0000">List of download links, to be added once files are available</span>'''
 +
 
 +
=== Documentation ===
 +
=== Example Code ===
 +
=== Libraries and Drivers ===
 +
 
 +
== Getting Started with C/C++ ==
  
 
If you are new to writing code for Phidgets, we recommend starting by running, then modifying existing examples. This will allow you to:
 
If you are new to writing code for Phidgets, we recommend starting by running, then modifying existing examples. This will allow you to:
Line 25: Line 25:
  
 
Instructions are divided up by operating system. Choose:
 
Instructions are divided up by operating system. Choose:
*[[#Windows(2000/XP/Vista/7)|Windows 2000 / XP / Vista / 7]]
+
*[[#Windows(XP/Vista/7)|Windows XP / Vista / 7]]
 
*[[#OS X |OS X]]
 
*[[#OS X |OS X]]
 
*[[#Linux | Linux]] (including PhidgetSBC)
 
*[[#Linux | Linux]] (including PhidgetSBC)
  
==Windows (XP/Vista/7/8)==
+
== Windows ==
  
 
===Description of Library Files===
 
===Description of Library Files===
C/C++ programs on Windows depend on three files, which the installers in [[#Libraries and Drivers|Quick Downloads]] put onto your system:
+
C/C++ programs on Windows depend on three files, which the installers in Quick Downloads put onto your system:
* <b>{{Code|phidget21.dll}}</b> contains the actual Phidget library, which is used at run-time.  By default, it is placed in {{Code|C:\Windows\System32}}.
+
* <b>{{Code|phidget21.lib}}</b> is used by your compiler to link to the dll.  Your compiler has to know where this file is, by default our installer puts {{Code|phidget21.lib}} into {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}}, so you can either point your compiler to that location, or copy and link to it in a directory for your project workspace. {{Code|phidget21.lib}} is written to be compatible with most compilers - but your specific compiler may need a different format. Check our documentation for your specific compiler for details. Please note that we provide versions of the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} that are specifically optimized for 32-bit or 64-bit systems. If you are using a 64 bit versions of Windows, the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} is placed in {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}}; The 32 bit version of {{Code|phidget21.lib}} is placed in {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets\x86}}.
+
* <b>{{Code|phidget21.h}}</b> lists all the Phidget API function calls available to your code.  Your compiler also has to know where this file is.  By default, our installer puts {{Code|phidget21.h}} into {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}} so you can either point your compiler to that location, or copy and link to it in a directory for your project workspace.
+
  
If you do not want to use our installer, you can download all three [{{SERVER}}/downloads/libraries/phidget21-x86.zip files] and manually install them where you want; refer to our [[OS_-_Windows#Manual_File_Installation | Manual Installation Instructions]].
+
*'''phidget22.dll''' contains the actual Phidget library, which is used at run-time. By default, it is placed in C:\Windows\System32.
 +
*'''phidget22.lib''' is used by your compiler to link to the dll. Your compiler has to know where this file is, by default our installer puts phidget22.lib into C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22, so you can either point your compiler to that location, or copy and link to it in a directory for your project workspace. phidget22.lib is written to be compatible with most compilers - but your specific compiler may need a different format. Check our documentation for your specific compiler for details. Please note that we provide versions of the phidget22.lib that are specifically optimized for 32-bit or 64-bit systems. If you are using a 64 bit versions of Windows, the phidget22.lib is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22; The 32 bit version of phidget22.lib is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\x86.
 +
*'''phidget22.h''' lists all the Phidget API function calls available to your code. Your compiler also has to know where this file is. By default, our installer puts phidget22.h into C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22 so you can either point your compiler to that location, or copy and link to it in a directory for your project workspace.
  
 +
If you do not want to use our installer, you can download all three files and manually install them where you want; refer to our Manual Installation Instructions.
  
Running the examples and writing your own code can be fairly compiler-specific, so we include instructions for [[#Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010 | Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010]], [[#Visual Studio 2003 | Visual Studio 2003]], [[#Visual Studio C++ 6.0 | Visual Studio 6]], [[#Borland| Borland]], [[#Cygwin/MinGW | Cygwin/MinGW]], and [[#Dev C++ | Dev C++]].
+
Running the examples and writing your own code can be fairly compiler-specific, so we include instructions for [[#Visual Studio 2015|Visual Studio 2015]], [[#Code::Blocks|Code::Blocks]] and, [[#GCC on Windows|Cygwin/MinGW]].
  
===Visual Studio===
+
===Visual Studio 2015===
 +
C++/CLI (which used to be called Managed C++) is very different from mainstream C/C++. If you must use C++/CLI, consider calling the Phidget .NET library, instead of the C API normally used from C/C++. We have no documentation for using C++/CLI.
 +
Microsoft makes free versions of Visual Studio available known as Express Editions. The Express editions are suitable for most applications, but are limited in features for more complex applications. Please see Microsoft Visual Studio for more information.
  
C++/CLI (which used to be called Managed C++) is very different from mainstream C/C++.  If you must use C++/CLI, consider calling the Phidget .NET library, instead of the C API normally used from C/C++.  We have no documentation for using C++/CLI.
+
====Use Our Examples====
 
+
Microsoft makes free versions of Visual Studio available known as Express Editions.  The Express editions are suitable for most applications, but are limited in features for more complex applications. Please see [http://www.microsoft.com/visualstudio Microsoft Visual Studio] for more information.
+
 
+
 
+
====Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010====
+
 
+
=====Use Our Examples=====
+
 
+
To run the examples, you first download the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/VCpp.zip examples] and unpack them into a folder.  To load all projects in Visual Studio, go to File &rarr; Open &rarr; Project &rarr; Solution, and open {{Code|Visual Studio Phidgets Examples.sln}} in the {{Code|VCpp}} folder of the examples.
+
  
Since the examples were written in Visual Studio 2005, if you are opening the examples in Visual Studio 2008/2010, you will need to go through the Visual Studio Conversion Wizard to open and convert the 2005 project.  
+
To run the examples, you first download the examples and unpack them into a folder. To load all projects in Visual Studio, go to File → Open → Project → Solution, and open Visual Studio Phidgets Examples.sln in the VCpp folder of the examples.
  
[[File:VS2005 Conversion Wizard.PNG|link=|alt=Conversion Wizard]]
+
Since the examples were written in Visual Studio 2015, you will need to use Visual Studio 2015 or later in order to run the examples.
  
This will load all of the examples available for C/C++. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the {{Code|HelloWorld}} C/C++ example.
+
This will load all of the examples available for C/C++. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the HelloWorld C/C++ example.
  
Start by setting the {{Code|HelloWorld}} project as your start up project.
+
Start by setting the HelloWorld project as your start up project.
  
[[File:VS2005 StartUp Project.PNG|link=|alt=Start Up Project]]
+
[[Image: VS_setStartup.png]]
  
To run the example, click on Debug &rarr; Start Debugging. Please note that the projects, by default try to find the {{Code|phidget21.h}} and {{Code|phidget21.lib}} in the {{Code|$(SystemDrive)\Program Files\Phidgets}}. If you have these files installed in another location, please change the path to the file's location accordingly. Please see the [[#Write Your Own Code | Write Your Own Code]] section for details.  
+
To run the example, click on Debug Start Debugging. Please note that the projects, by default try to find the phidget22.h and phidget22.lib in the $(SystemDrive)\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22. If you have these files installed in another location, please change the path to the file's location accordingly. Please see the Write Your Own Code section for details.
  
[[File:VS2005 Run.PNG|link=|alt=Run]]
+
[[Image: VS_Debug.png|600px]]
  
 
This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
 
This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
  
[[File:VS2005 HelloWorld Output.PNG|link=|alt=HelloWorld Output]]
+
[[Image: VS_exampleOutput.png|600px]]
  
If you have a 64-bit computer (and operating system) then you may also need to adjust the platform. You can do this by selecting x64 from the following drop down menu:
+
If you have a 32-bit computer (and operating system) then you may also need to adjust the platform. You can do this by selecting Win32 from the following drop down menu:
  
[[File:platform.png|link=]]
+
[[Image: VS_PlatformSelect.png|600px]]
  
If x64 is not a selectable option then go into the Configuration Manager and create it by selecting New... and copying the settings from Win32. You should now be able to select x64 and run the code normally.
+
If Win32 is not a selectable option then go into the Configuration Manager and create it by selecting New... and copying the settings from x64. You should now be able to select Win32 and run the code normally.
  
[[File:newplatform.png|link=]]
+
[[Image: VS_newPlatform.png|600px]]
  
After confirming that the {{Code|HelloWorld}} example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. {{FindYourDevice}}
+
After confirming that the HelloWorld example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our [http://www.phidgets.com webpage], and then check the API documentation for it.
  
Once you have the C/C++ examples running, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section below to help you follow them.
+
Once you have the C/C++ examples running, we have a [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] below to help you follow them.
  
=====Write Your Own Code=====
+
====Write Your Own Code====
  
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. To begin:  
+
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. To begin:
  
 
1. Generate a new Visual C++: Win32 Console Application project with a descriptive name such as PhidgetTest.
 
1. Generate a new Visual C++: Win32 Console Application project with a descriptive name such as PhidgetTest.
  
[[File:VS2005 New Project.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
[[Image: VS_NewProject1.png|600px]]
  
 
2. Next, select Console Application.
 
2. Next, select Console Application.
  
[[File:VS2005 New Project 2.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
[[Image: VS_NewProject2.png|600px]]
  
 
3. Open the project properties window.
 
3. Open the project properties window.
  
4. Navigate to Configuration Properties &rarr; C/C++.
+
4. Navigate to Configuration Properties C/C++.
  
5. Add {{Code|"C:\Program Files\Phidgets"}} to the additional directories field. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.h}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
+
5. Add "C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22" to the additional directories field. This step will find the phidget22.h file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
  
[[File:VS2005 Header.PNG|link=|alt=Header File]]
+
[[Image: VS_IncludeDirectories.png|600px]]
  
6. Navigate to Configuration Properties &rarr; Linker &rarr; Input.
+
6. Navigate to Configuration Properties Linker Input.
  
7. Edit the additional dependencies and add {{Code|"C:\Program Files\Phidgets\phidget21.lib"}}. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
+
7. Edit the additional dependencies and add "C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\phidget22.lib". This step will find the phidget22.lib file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
  
[[File:VS2005 Library.PNG|link=|alt=Library File]]
+
[[Image: VS_LinkerDependencies.png|600px]]
  
 
8. The project now has access to the Phidget function calls and you are ready to begin coding.
 
8. The project now has access to the Phidget function calls and you are ready to begin coding.
Line 116: Line 109:
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='C'>
 
+
   #include <phidget22.h>
   #include <phidget21.h>
+
 
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 +
The same [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] which describes the examples also has further resources for programming your Phidget.
  
The same [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section which describes the examples also has further resources for programming your Phidget.
+
===GCC on Windows===
  
====Visual Studio 2003====
+
====Cygwin/MinGW====
  
 
=====Use Our Examples=====
 
=====Use Our Examples=====
  
1. Start by downloading the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz examples]. You can import these examples into a Visual Studio 2003 C++ project. Afterwards, unpack them into a folder. Here, you can find example programs for all the devices. You will need this example source code to be copied into your C++ project later on. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the {{Code|HelloWorld}} C/C++ example.  
+
Download the examples and unpack them into a folder. Afterwards, unpack the examples. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the HelloWorld C/C++ example. Locate the HelloWorld.c file and type the following to compile the file and link the Phidget C/C++ library in a command line prompt:
  
2. A new project will need to be created. Generate a new Visual C++ empty project(.NET) with a descriptive name such as HelloWorld.
+
======Cygwin======
 +
<div class="source">
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang='bash'>
 +
  gcc HelloWorld.c -o HelloWorld -I"/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Phidgets/Phidget22" -L"/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Phidgets/Phidget22/x86" -lphidget22
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
</div>
  
[[File:VS2003 New Project.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
======MinGW======
 +
<div class="source">
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang='bash'>
 +
  gcc HelloWorld.c -o HelloWorld -I"C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22" -L"C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\x86" -lphidget22
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
</div>
  
3. Create a new C++ file by adding a new item to the source files folder.  
+
After using gcc, you will have an executable named HelloWorld that you can run. It is assumed that phidget22.h is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22 and phidget22.lib is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\x86. If the files are placed in another location, please adjust the paths to the file's location accordingly.
  
[[File:VS2003 New File.PNG|link=|alt=New File]]
+
After using gcc, you will have an executable named HelloWorld that you can run.
  
[[File:VS2003 New File 2.PNG|link=|alt=New File]]
+
This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
  
4. An empty C++ file will pop up. Please copy and paste the contents of the {{Code|HelloWorld.c}} program into here.
+
[[Image: MinGW_example.png|600px]]
  
[[File:VS2003 Source.PNG|link=|alt=Source Code]]
+
After confirming that the HelloWorld example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our [http://www.phidgets.com webpage], and then check the API documentation for it.
 
+
5. Next, the project setting needs to be set up. Open the project properties window.
+
 
+
6. Navigate to Configuration Properties &rarr; C/C++.
+
 
+
7. Add {{Code|"C:\Program Files\Phidgets"}} to the additional include directories field. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.h}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
+
 
+
[[File:VS2003 Header.PNG|link=|alt=Header File]]
+
 
+
8. Navigate to Configuration Properties &rarr; Linker &rarr; Input.
+
 
+
9. Add {{Code|"C:\Program  Files\Phidgets\phidget21.lib"}} to the additional dependencies field. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
+
 
+
[[File:VS2003 Library.PNG|link=|alt=Library File]]
+
 
+
10. Now, you can run the example. Click on Debug &rarr; Start Without Debugging.
+
 
+
[[File:VS2003 Run.PNG|link=|alt=Run]]
+
 
+
11. This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
+
 
+
[[File:VS2003 HelloWorld Output.PNG|link=|alt=HelloWorld Output]]
+
 
+
After confirming that the {{Code|HelloWorld}} example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. {{FindYourDevice}}
+
 
+
Once you have the C/C++ examples running, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section below to help you follow them.
+
  
 
=====Write Your Own Code=====
 
=====Write Your Own Code=====
  
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your  development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. Please see the [[#Use Our Examples 2 | Use Our Examples]] section for instructions.
+
When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code with Cygwin/MinGW in your favourite text editor. In your .c source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
 
+
Then, in your code, you will need to include the Phidget C/C++ library:
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='C'>
 
+
   #include <phidget22.h>
   #include <phidget21.h>
+
 
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
====Visual Studio C++ 6.0====
+
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the [[#Use Our Examples|Use Our Examples]] section above.
 +
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
  
=====Use Our Examples=====
+
===Code::Blocks===
  
1. Download the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz examples] and unpack them into a folder. Here, you can find example programs for all the devices. You will need this example source code to be copied into your C++ project later on. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the {{Code|HelloWorld}} C/C++ example.
+
====Use Our Examples====
  
2. Next, a new project will need to be created. Generate a new Win32 Console Application project with a descriptive name such as HelloWorld.
+
1. Download the examples and unpack them into a folder. Here, you can find example programs for all the devices. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our [http://www.phidgets.com webpage], and then check the API documentation for it. You will need this example source code to be copied into your Code::Blocks project later on. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the HelloWorld C/C++ example.
  
[[File:VS6 New Project.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
2. Once that that has been done, open one of the example files that you would like to run, for example HelloWorld.c. Under the Settings menu, choose "Compiler..."
  
3. Create an empty project.
+
[[Image: CodeBlocks Compiler.png|600px]]
  
[[File:VS6 New Project 2.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
3. Go to the "Search directories" tab, and within that select the "Compiler" tab. Add a new entry, and choose your Phidgets installation directory.
  
4. Next, the project settings needs to be set up. Navigate to Project &rarr; Settings &rarr; C/C++ &rarr; Preprocessor.
+
[[Image: CodeBlocks SearchDirectories Compiler.png|600px]]
  
5. Add {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}} to the additional include directories field. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.h}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
+
4. Select the "Linker" tab. Add a new entry, and choose your Phidgets installation directory, but append "\x86".
  
[[File:VS6 Header.PNG|link=|alt=Header File]]
+
[[Image: CodeBlocks SearchDirectories Linker.png|600px]]
  
6. Navigate to Project &rarr; Settings &rarr; Link &rarr; Input &rarr; Additional library Path.
+
5. Go to the "Linker Settings" tab and add an entry called "phidget22"
  
7. Add {{Code|phidget21.lib}} to the object/library modules field.
+
[[Image: CodeBlocks LinkerSettings.png|600px]]
  
8. Add {{Code|C:\Program  Files\Phidgets}} to the additional library path. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.  
+
You can now compile and run the example.
  
[[File:VS6 Library.PNG|link=|alt=Library File]]
+
====Write Your Own Code====
  
The project now has access to the Phidget function calls and you are ready to begin coding.
+
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. Please see the [[#Use Our Examples|Use Our Examples]] section for instructions.
  
To import the example program into your project, please:
+
In your .c source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
  
9. Create a new C++ file by navigating to File &rarr; New &rarr; Files &rarr; C++ Source File and enter a descriptive name such as HelloWorld.
+
<div class="source">
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang='C'>
 +
  #include <phidget22.h>
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
</div>
  
[[File:VS6 New File.PNG|link=|alt=New File]]
+
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the examples above.
  
10. An empty C++ file will pop up. Please copy and paste the contents of the {{Code|HelloWorld.c}} program here.
+
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
  
[[File:VS6 Source.PNG|link=|alt=Source Code]]
+
== OS X ==
  
11. Now, you can run the example. Click on Build &rarr; Execute.
+
C/C++ has excellent support on OS X through the gcc compiler.
  
[[File:VS6 Run.PNG|link=|alt=Run]]
+
The first step in using C/C++ on Mac is to install the Phidget C/C++ library. Compile and install them as explained on the Getting Started guide for your device, which you can find in its user guide. Then, the OS - OS X page also describes the different Phidget files, their installed locations, and their roles.
  
12. This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
+
===Use Our Examples===
  
[[File:VS6 HelloWorld Output.PNG|link=|alt=HelloWorld Output]]
+
After installing the main Phidget library for OS X as above, you're ready to download the examples. Afterwards, unzip the file. To run the example code, you'll need to find the source code for your specific device. Then, compile the code under your platform and run it.
  
After confirming that the {{Code|HelloWorld}} example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. {{FindYourDevice}}
+
To compile, link the Phidget C/C++ library, and build an executable binary on OS X, do (for example, depending on the Headers location):
 
+
Once you have the C/C++ examples running, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section below to help you follow them.
+
 
+
=====Write Your Own Code=====
+
 
+
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. Please see the [[#Use Our Examples 3 | Use Our Examples]] section for instructions.
+
  
In your '''{{Code|.c}}''' source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
'''<span style="color:#FF0000">VERIFY THIS CODE ON A MAC</span>'''
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='bash'>
 
+
   gcc example.c -o example -F/Library/Frameworks -framework Phidget22 -I/Library/Frameworks/Phidget22.framework/Headers
   #include <phidget21.h>
+
 
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the [[#Use Our Examples 3 | Use Our Examples]] section.  
+
After using gcc, you will have an executable named example that you can run.
  
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
+
===Write Your Own Code===
  
===Borland===
+
When writing your code from scratch, you must include a reference to the library header:
 
+
====Use Our Examples====
+
 
+
In addition to running one of the two [[#Libraries and Drivers:| Windows Installers]] above (which you probably already have if you worked through the ''Getting Started'' page for your device), you will need the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/libraries/phidget21bcc.zip Borland C++ Libraries]. {{Code|phidget21bcc.lib}} is typically placed in {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}}, but you are free to place it in any directory you wish.
+
 
+
After installing the Phidget C/C++ library, you're ready to download the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz examples] and run the examples.
+
 
+
Afterwards, unpack the examples. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the {{Code|HelloWorld}} C/C++ example. Locate the {{Code|HelloWorld.c}} file and type the following to compile the file and link the Phidget C/C++ library:
+
  
To compile, link the Phidget C/C++ library and build a binary executable, enter the following in a command line prompt in the directory with {{Code|HelloWorld.c}}:
 
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='C'>
   bcc32 -eHelloWorld -I"C:\Program Files\Phidgets" -L"C:\Program Files\Phidgets" phidget21bcc.lib HelloWorld.c
+
   #include <phidget22.h>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
It is assumed that {{Code|phidget21bcc.lib}} and {{Code|phidget21.h}} are placed in {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}}. If the files are placed in another location, please adjust the paths to both of the file's location accordingly.
+
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the [[#Use Our Examples|Use Our Examples]] section above.
  
In this case, {{Code|HelloWorld.c}} would be the '''.c''' file specific to your device.  After using {{Code|bcc32}}, you will have an executable named {{Code|HelloWorld}} that you can run.
+
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples. Even more help and references are provided from there.
  
This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
+
== Linux ==
  
[[File:Borland HelloWorld Output.PNG|link=|alt=HelloWorld Output]]
+
C/C++ has support on Linux through the gcc compiler.
  
After confirming that the {{Code|HelloWorld}} example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. {{FindYourDevice}}
+
The first step in using C/C++ on Linux is to install the Phidget libraries. Compile and install them as explained on the main Linux page. That Linux page also describes the different Phidget files, their installed locations, and their roles.
  
====Write Your Own Code====
+
===Use Our Examples===
  
When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code with Borland. In your '''{{Code|.c}}''' source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
After installing the Phidget libraries for Linux as above, you're ready to download and run the examples:
  
<div class="source">
+
*Generic C/C++ Examples
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
 
+
  #include <phidget21.h>
+
 
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
</div>
+
 
+
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the examples [[#Use Our Examples 4 |above]].
+
 
+
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
+
 
+
===GCC on Windows===
+
 
+
====Cygwin/MinGW====
+
 
+
=====Use Our Examples=====
+
  
Download the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz examples] and unpack them into a folder. Afterwards, unpack the examples. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the {{Code|HelloWorld}} C/C++ example. Locate the {{Code|HelloWorld.c}} file and type the following to compile the file and link the Phidget C/C++ library in a command line prompt:
+
To run the example code, you'll need to download and unpack the examples, and then find the source code for your device. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our [http://www.phidgets.com webpage], and then check the API documentation for it. You can also use the HelloWorld program, which a basic program that can run with any Phidget. Then, compile the code under your platform and run it. When compiling, you need to link to the Phidget library.
  
<b>Cygwin</b>
+
To compile, link the Phidget libraries and build a binary executable on Linux, do the following in a terminal in the directory with example.c:
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='bash'>
   gcc example.c -o HelloWorld -I"/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Phidgets" -L"/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Phidgets" -lphidget21
+
   gcc example.c -o example -lphidget22
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<b>MinGW</b>
+
In this case, example.c would be the .c file specific to your device. After using gcc, you will have an executable named example that you can run.
<div class="source">
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
  gcc example.c -o HelloWorld -I"C:\Program Files\Phidgets" -L"C:\Program Files\Phidgets" -lphidget21
+
</syntaxhighlight>
+
</div>
+
  
After using gcc, you will have an executable named {{Code|HelloWorld}} that you can run. 
+
On Linux, if you have not set up your udev rules for USB access, you will need to run the program as root:
It is assumed that {{Code|phidget21.h}} and {{Code|phidget21.lib}} are placed in {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}}. If the files are placed in another location, please adjust the paths to the file's location accordingly.
+
 
+
After using {{Code|gcc}}, you will have an executable named {{Code|HelloWorld}} that you can run. 
+
 
+
This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
+
 
+
[[File:C MinGW HelloWorld Output.PNG|link=|alt=HelloWorld Output]]
+
 
+
After confirming that the {{Code|HelloWorld}} example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. {{FindYourDevice}}
+
 
+
=====Write Your Own Code=====
+
 
+
When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code with Cygwin/MinGW in your favourite text editor. In your '''{{Code|.c}}''' source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='bash'>
 
+
   sudo ./example
   #include <phidget21.h>
+
 
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the [[#Use Our Examples 5| Use Our Examples]] section above.
+
===Write Your Own Code===
 
+
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
+
 
+
===Dev C++===
+
 
+
=====Use Our Examples=====
+
 
+
1. Download the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz examples] and unpack them into a folder. Here, you can find example programs for all the devices. {{FindYourDevice}}  You will need this example source code to be copied into your Dev C++ project later on. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the {{Code|HelloWorld}} C/C++ example.
+
  
2. In order to control Phidgets with Dev C++, we will use the {{Code|reimp}} tool to convert the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} to a format that Dev C++ accepts. Download the [http://sourceforge.net/projects/mingw/ reimp tool].  Reimp is part of MinGW, a minimal UNIX emulator for Windows, and it is specifically within the mingw-utils package.  You can check MinGW's [http://sourceforge.net/project/shownotes.php?release_id=126568 release notes] to ensure Reimp is in the version you are using.
+
When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code on Linux, such as within a text editor like Emacs, Vi, Gedit, or Kate. In your .c source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
  
3. Open up command line and traverse to the directory containing the reimp tool. Type the following command to create {{Code|libphidget21.a}}.
 
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang='C'>
   reimp.exe "C:\Program Files\Phidgets\phidget21.lib"
+
   #include <phidget22.h>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
The command above assumes that the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} is in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly. Please note that the 64 bit version of {{Code|phidget21.lib}} is not supported on Dev C/C++. Please use the 32 bit version of {{Code|phidget21.lib}}.
 
  
4. Place {{Code|libphidget21.a}} in {{Code|<Dev-Cpp Install Directory>/lib}}.
+
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the examples above.
  
5. Next, a new project will need to be created. Generate a new console application with a descriptive name such as PhidgetTest. Please select C as the project type.
+
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
  
[[File:DevC New Project.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
== Edit the Examples ==
  
6. Next, the project settings needs to be set up. Navigate to Project Options &rarr; Directories &rarr; Include Directories.
+
By following the instructions for your operating system and compiler above, you probably now have a working example and want to understand it better so you can change it to do what you want. This [[#Edit the Examples|teaching section]] has resources for you to learn from the examples and write your own.
 +
Your main reference for writing C/C++ code will be the Phidget22 API Manual:
  
7. Add a new path to {{Code|C:\Program Files\Phidgets}}. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.h}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.
+
'''<span style="color:#FF0000">Link to API manual</span>'''
  
[[File:DevC Header.PNG|link=|alt=Header File]]
+
=== Example Flow ===
  
8. Navigate to Project Options &rarr; Parameters &rarr; Linker.
+
{{ExamplePseudocode|In C/C++, you can name these '''event''' functions whatever you like. You will add them to the Phidget library in the Main Code section. This hooks them into the actual events when they occur. <br><br>
 +
In the example code, the event functions common to all Phidgets are called things like '''AttachHandler()''' and '''DetachHandler()''', etc.<br>
 +
Other event functions will be specific to each device, like when a tag is read on an RFID board, or when a sensor value changes on an Interface Kit.
 +
|Creating a Phidget software object in C/C++ is specific to the Phidget.  For a Phidget Spatial, for example, this would involve creating a {{Code|Spatial}} object.  The examples show how to do this and other API functions.<br><br>
 +
The object provides device specific methods and properties which are available from the API for your specific Phidget.|
 +
[{{SERVER}}/documentation/Phidget22.NET.zip .NET API]}}
  
9. Add {{Code|-lphidget21}} to the field. This step will find the {{Code|libphidget21.a}} file in {{Code|<Dev-Cpp Install Directory>/lib}}.
+
=== Code Snippets ===
  
[[File:DevC Library.PNG|link=|alt=Library File]]
+
==== Step One: Initialize and Open ====
  
10. To import the {{Code|HelloWorld}} program into your project, please open up {{Code|main.c}} in the editor.
+
Before using a Phidget, it must first be created and opened.
  
11. An empty C file will pop up. Please copy and paste the contents of the example program.
+
<div class="source">
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 +
//Create
 +
PhidgetDigitalInputHandle device;
 +
PhidgetDigitalInput_create(&device);
 +
 +
//Open
 +
PhidgetReturnCode ret;
 +
ret = Phidget_open((PhidgetHandle)device);
 +
if(ret != EPHIDGET_OK)
 +
{
 +
  Phidget_getErrorDescription ( returnValue, &errorString );
 +
  printf("\n%s", errorString );
 +
}
  
[[File:DevC Source.PNG|link=|alt=Source Code]]
+
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
</div>
  
12. Now, you can run the example. Click on Execute &rarr; Compile & Run.
+
The variable "device" is now a handle for the Phidget. This example is ''specific to the Digital Input''. For another device, use the correspondingly named calls in the C API.
  
[[File:DevC Run.PNG|link=|alt=Run]]
+
Note that Phidget_open() opens the software object, but not hardware. So, it is not a guarantee you can use the Phidget immediately.  
  
13. This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:
+
Also note that you can catch error codes returned by the Phidget library as we did above when using the Phidget_open() call. In other words, this should probably be present around most of your Phidget calls, especially when you are learning how to use the Phidget and debugging your code:
 
+
[[File:DevC HelloWorld Output.PNG|link=|alt=HelloWorld Output]]
+
 
+
After confirming that the {{Code|HelloWorld}} example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. {{FindYourDevice}}
+
 
+
Once you have the C/C++ examples running, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section below to help you follow them.
+
 
+
=====Write Your Own Code=====
+
 
+
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. Please see the [[#Use Our Examples 6 | Use Our Examples]] section for instructions.
+
 
+
In your '''{{Code|.c}}''' source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 
+
PhidgetReturnCode ret;
   #include <phidget21.h>
+
const char* errorString;
 
+
ret = /*function call here*/;
 +
if(ret != EPHIDGET_OK)
 +
{
 +
   Phidget_getErrorDescription ( returnValue, &errorString );
 +
  printf("\n%s", errorString );
 +
}
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the [[#Use Our Examples 6 | examples]] above.
+
==== Step Two: Wait for Attachment (plugging in) of the Phidget ====
  
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
+
To use the Phidget, it must be plugged in (attached). We can handle this simply by calling openWaitForAttachment in place of the basic open. This function works for any Phidget. openWaitForAttachment will block until a connection is made to the Phidget, or the specified timeout is exceeded:
 
+
 
+
===Code::Blocks===
+
=====Use Our Examples=====
+
The process for getting Phidgets working in Code::Blocks is much the same as [[#Dev C++|Dev-C++]]. You will need to download the reimp tool that is linked there and use it on the phidget21.lib file as instructed.  After the .a file has been created you can stick it in your /Phidgets folder with the rest of the Phidget library files.
+
 
+
Now that that has been done, open one of the example files that you would like to run, for example InterfaceKit-simple.c.  Under the Settings menu, choose "Compiler and debugger..."
+
 
+
[[File:compilersettings.png|link=|916px]]
+
 
+
Go to the "Search directories" tab and add a new entry.  Choose your Phidgets installation directory.
+
 
+
[[File:searchdirectories.png|link=|500px]]
+
 
+
Under the "Linker settings" tab add a new entry and type in "phidget21".
+
 
+
[[File:linkersettings.png|link=|500px]]
+
 
+
You can now compile and run the example.
+
 
+
=====Write Your Own Code=====
+
 
+
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. Please see the [[#Use Our Examples 6 | Use Our Examples]] section for instructions.
+
 
+
In your '''{{Code|.c}}''' source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 
+
Phidget_openWaitForAttachment((PhidgetHandle)device, 5000);
  #include <phidget21.h>
+
 
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the [[#Use Our Examples 6 | examples]] above.
+
Sometimes, it makes more sense to handle the attachment via an event. This would be in instances where the Phidget is being plugged and unplugged, and you want to handle these incidents. Or, when you want to use event-driven programming because you have a GUI-driven program. In these cases, an event-driven code snippet to handle the attachment might look something like this:
 
+
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
+
 
+
==OS X==
+
 
+
C/C++ has excellent support on OS X through the gcc compiler. 
+
 
+
The first step in using C/C++ on Mac is to install the Phidget C/C++ library.  Compile and install them as explained on the Getting Started guide for your device, which you can find in its [[:Category:UserGuide|user guide]]. Then, the [[OS - OS X#Description of Library files|OS - OS X]] page also describes the different Phidget files, their installed locations, and their roles.
+
 
+
===Use Our Examples===
+
 
+
After installing the main Phidget library for OS X as above, you're ready to download the [{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz examples]. Afterwards, unzip the file. To run the example code, you'll need to find the source code ''for your specific device''.  Then, compile the code under your platform and run it.
+
 
+
To compile, link the Phidget C/C++ library, and build an executable binary on OS X, do (for example, depending on the Headers location):
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 
+
void CCONV OnAttachedEventHandler(PhidgetHandle Device, void *userPtr)
   gcc example.c -o example -F/Library/Frameworks -framework Phidget21 -I/Library/Frameworks/Phidget21.framework/Headers
+
{
 +
   int serial;
 +
  const char* deviceName;
 +
  Phidget_getDeviceSerialNumber(Device, &serial);
 +
  Phidget_getDeviceName(Device, &deviceName);
 +
  printf("\nHello to Device %s, Serial Number: %d", deviceName, serial);
 +
}
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
+
And the code to set up the event handler within the code opening your device might look like:
After using gcc, you will have an executable named {{Code|example}} that you can run.
+
 
+
===Write Your Own Code===
+
 
+
When writing your code from scratch, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 +
//Code for -creating- device here....
  
  #include <phidget21.h>
+
Phidget_setOnAttachHandler((PhidgetHandle)device,OnAttachedEventHandler, NULL)
  
 +
//Code for -opening- device here....
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the [[#Use Our Examples 7|Use Our Example]] section above.
+
==== Step Three: Do Things with the Phidget ====
  
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples.  Even more help and references are provided from there.
+
You can read data and interact with your Phidget both by polling it for its current state (or to set a state), or by catching events that trigger when the data changes.
  
==Linux==
+
For a Phidget Digital Input or Output, the polling method of getting the input state or setting an output state looks something like this:
  
C/C++ has support on Linux through the gcc compiler. 
+
<div class="source">
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 +
//Get the state from a digital input
 +
int state;
 +
PhidgetDigitalInput_getState(digitalInputDevice, &state);
  
The first step in using C/C++ on Linux is to install the Phidget libraries.  Compile and install them as explained on the main [[OS - Linux | Linux page]].  That Linux page also describes the different Phidget files, their installed locations, and their roles.
+
//Set the duty cycle for a digital output
 
+
PhidgetDigitalOutput_setDutyCycle(digitalOutputDevice, 0);
===Use Our Examples===
+
 
+
After installing the Phidget libraries for Linux as above, you're ready to download and run the examples:
+
*[{{SERVER}}/downloads/examples/phidget21-c-examples.tar.gz Generic C/C++ Examples]
+
 
+
To run the example code, you'll need to download and unpack the examples, and then find the source code for your device.  {{FindYourDevice}}  You can also use the HelloWorld program, which a basic program that can run with any Phidget.  Then, compile the code under your platform and run it.  When compiling, you need to link to the Phidget library.
+
 
+
To compile, link the Phidget libraries and build a binary executable on Linux, do the following in a terminal in the directory with {{Code|example.c}}:
+
 
+
<div class="source">
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
  gcc example.c -o example -lphidget21
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
In this case, {{Code|example.c}} would be the '''.c''' file specific to your device.  After using gcc, you will have an executable named {{Code|example}} that you can run. 
+
To catch data changes via events, you would use something like this:
 
+
On Linux, if you have not set up [[OS_-_Linux#Setting_udev_Rules | your udev rules for USB access]], you will need to run the program '''as root''':
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=bash>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
   sudo ./example
+
void CCONV OnStateChangeHandler(PhidgetDigitalInputHandle digitalInput, void *userPtr, int state)
</syntaxhighlight>
+
{
</div>
+
   printf("State: %d", state);
 +
}
  
===Write Your Own Code===
+
//...
  
When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code on Linux, such as within a text editor like Emacs, Vi, Gedit, or Kate.  In your '''{{Code|.c}}''' source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:
+
//Within the function that opens the device
  
<div class="source">
+
// Insert code to create an Digital Input called 'device'
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
   #include <phidget21.h>
+
// Hook our function above into the device object
 +
   PhidgetDigitalInput_setOnStateChangeHandler(digitalInput, OnStateChangeHandler, NULL);
 +
 +
// Insert code to open 'device'
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the examples above.
+
==== Step Four: Close and Delete ====
  
To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.
+
At the end of your program, don’t forget to close and delete the device to free any locks on the Phidget that opening the device put in place!
 
+
==Windows CE==
+
 
+
===Description of Library Files===
+
C/C++ programs on Windows CE depend on the following files, which the Windows CE installer puts onto your system:
+
* <b>{{Code|phidget21.dll}}</b> contains the actual Phidget library, which is used at run-time.  It is placed in {{Code|\Windows}}.
+
* <b>{{Code|PhidgetWebService21.exe}}</b> is used to control Phidgets remotely across a network using the [[#WebService | PhidgetWebService]]. It can be placed anywhere on the system.
+
* <b>{{Code|phidget21.lib}}</b> is used by your compiler to link to the dll.  Your compiler has to know where this file is.
+
* <b>{{Code|phidget21.h}}</b> lists all the Phidget API function calls available to your code.  Your compiler also has to know where this file is.
+
* <b>{{Code|phidget.dll}}</b> is the Phidgets kernel driver. It is placed in {{Code|\Windows}}.
+
 
+
===Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010===
+
 
+
=====Use Our Examples=====
+
 
+
Currently, we have no example code for C/C++ on Windows CE. However, set up is very much the same as what it would be with [[#Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010 |Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010]] in Windows. The {{Code|phidget21.h}} and {{Code|phidget21.lib}} can be downloaded [{{SERVER}}/downloads/libraries/Phidget21-wincedevel.zip here].
+
 
+
=====Write Your Own Code=====
+
 
+
When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. To begin:
+
 
+
1. Generate a new Visual C++: Win32 Smart Device project with a descriptive name such as PhidgetTest.
+
 
+
[[File:WinCE VS C NewProject 1.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
 
+
2. Select {{Code|Next}}.
+
 
+
[[File:WinCE VS C NewProject 2.PNG|link=|alt=New Project]]
+
 
+
3. Select the SDK(s) that you want to code against and elect {{Code|Next}}.
+
 
+
[[File:WinCE VS C NewProject 3.PNG|link=|alt=SDKs]]
+
 
+
4. Create a console application and select {{Code|Next}}.
+
 
+
[[File:WinCE VS C NewProject 4.PNG|link=|alt=Create Console Application]]
+
 
+
3. Open the project properties window.
+
 
+
4. Navigate to Configuration Properties &rarr; C/C++.
+
 
+
5. Add {{Code|"C:\Program Files\Phidgets"}} to the additional directories field. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.h}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path  to the file's location accordingly.
+
 
+
[[File:VS2005 Header.PNG|link=|alt=Header File]]
+
 
+
6. Navigate to Configuration Properties &rarr; Linker &rarr; Input.
+
 
+
7. Edit the additional dependencies and add {{Code|"C:\Program  Files\Phidgets\phidget21.lib"}}. This step will find the {{Code|phidget21.lib}} file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path  to the file's location accordingly.
+
 
+
[[File:VS2005 Library.PNG|link=|alt=Library File]]
+
 
+
8. The project now has access to the Phidget function calls and you are ready to begin coding.
+
 
+
Then, in your code, you will need to include the Phidget C/C++ library:
+
  
 
<div class="source">
 
<div class="source">
<syntaxhighlight lang=cpp>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang=C>
 
+
Phidget_close((PhidgetHandle)device);
  #include <phidget21.h>
+
PhidgetDigitalInput_delete(&device);
 
+
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 +
===C++ Events</span>===
  
The same [[#Follow the Examples|teaching]] section which describes the examples also has further resources for programming your Phidget.
+
If you want to use C++ style, object-oriented events you can do that as well. The following examples show you how to do this:
  
==Follow the Examples==
+
'''<span style="color:#FF0000">Figure out how to properly load these</span>'''
  
By following the instructions for your operating system and compiler above, you probably now have a working example and want to understand it better so you can change it to do what you want.
+
[[:File:Simple_22.cpp|Main]]
  
Your main reference for writing C code will be our C/C++ API information, with syntax for all of our functions:
+
[[:File:Simple_22.h|Header]]
  
{{UsingAPhidgetInCodeGeneral|both of which are available in C/C++|[{{SERVER}}/documentation/Phidget21_C_Doc.zip C/C++ API]}}
+
==== More How-To's ====
  
===Example Flow===
+
'''<span style="color:#FF0000">Link to other common pages like polling vs. events</span>'''
  
{{ExamplePseudocode|In C/C++, you can name these '''event''' functions whatever you like.  You will then pass them as function pointers to the Phidget library below in the Main Code section.  This hooks them into the actual events when they occur. <br>
+
== Common Problems and Solutions/Workarounds ==
In the example code, the event functions common to all Phidgets are called things like '''AttachHandler()''' and '''DetachHandler()''', etc.<br><br>
+
Some event functions will be specific to each device, like when a tag is read on an RFID board, or when a sensor value changes on an Interface Kit.
+
Other functions are given in the examples to show you more detail on using your Phidget.  For example, '''DeviceInitialize()''' will show what needs to be set up for your Phidget before using it.
+
|Creating a Phidget software object in C is specific to the Phidget.  For a Phidget Spatial, for example, this would involve creating an object with the {{Code|CPhidgetSpatialHandle}} type, and then initializing it using the {{Code|CPhidgetSpatial_create function}}.  The examples show how to do this and other API functions.<br><br>
+
Other C calls follow a similar syntax - {{Code|CPhidgetXXX_function}}, where XXX is the name of your device, and function is an action available from the API for your specific Phidget.|
+
[{{SERVER}}/documentation/Phidget21_C_Doc.zip C/C++ API]}}
+
  
===Code Snippets===
+
===Issue: I am using a non US-English version of Windows, and the Visual C/C++ examples run into a linker error===
  
When programming in C/C++, you're in luck.  All of our code snippet examples on our [[General Phidget Programming]] page are in both C++ and Java.  Therefore, we do not include any here, because that page is much more in-depth, and you won't have to have two pages open at once.  So head over there, and start writing code!
 
 
===C++ Events===
 
If you want to use C++ style, object-oriented events you can do that as well.  The following examples show you how to do this:
 
 
*[{{SERVER}}/wiki/images/0/05/Simple.cpp Main]
 
*[{{SERVER}}/wiki/images/1/11/Simple.h Header]
 
 
==Common Problems and Solutions/Workarounds==
 
 
===Issue: I am using a non US-English version of Windows, and the Visual C/C++ examples run into a linker error===
 
 
Affected Operating Systems: '''Windows'''
 
Affected Operating Systems: '''Windows'''
  
The example projects, by default finds the {{Code|phidget21.h}} and {{Code|phidget21.lib}} in ${SystemDrive}\Program Files\Phidgets. If you are using a non US-English version of Windows, the Phidget drivers may be installed into a different location. To resolve, you will have to modify the paths to these two files. For instructions, please see your environment/compiler section.
+
The example projects, by default finds the phidget22.h and phidget22.lib in ${SystemDrive}\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22. If you are using a non US-English version of Windows, the Phidget drivers may be installed into a different location. To resolve, you will have to modify the paths to these two files. For instructions, please see your environment/compiler section.

Revision as of 22:16, 13 January 2017

C/C++

C++ is a general purpose, cross-platform programming language with a vast user base.


Introduction

If this is your first time working with a Phidget, we suggest starting with the Getting Started page for your specific device. This can be found in the user guide for your device. That page will walk you through installing drivers and libraries for your operating system, and will then bring you back here to use C/C++ specifically. C/C++ is capable of using the complete Phidget API, including events. We also provide example code in C/C++ for all Phidget devices.

C/C++ can be developed with Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10 (environments include Visual Studio, Borland, Cygwin, and MinGW), OS X, and Linux. You can compare C/C++ with our other supported languages.

Quick Downloads

List of download links, to be added once files are available

Documentation

Example Code

Libraries and Drivers

Getting Started with C/C++

If you are new to writing code for Phidgets, we recommend starting by running, then modifying existing examples. This will allow you to:

  • Make sure your libraries are properly linked
  • Go from source code to a test application as quickly as possible
  • Ensure your Phidget is hooked up properly

Instructions are divided up by operating system. Choose:

Windows

Description of Library Files

C/C++ programs on Windows depend on three files, which the installers in Quick Downloads put onto your system:

  • phidget22.dll contains the actual Phidget library, which is used at run-time. By default, it is placed in C:\Windows\System32.
  • phidget22.lib is used by your compiler to link to the dll. Your compiler has to know where this file is, by default our installer puts phidget22.lib into C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22, so you can either point your compiler to that location, or copy and link to it in a directory for your project workspace. phidget22.lib is written to be compatible with most compilers - but your specific compiler may need a different format. Check our documentation for your specific compiler for details. Please note that we provide versions of the phidget22.lib that are specifically optimized for 32-bit or 64-bit systems. If you are using a 64 bit versions of Windows, the phidget22.lib is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22; The 32 bit version of phidget22.lib is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\x86.
  • phidget22.h lists all the Phidget API function calls available to your code. Your compiler also has to know where this file is. By default, our installer puts phidget22.h into C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22 so you can either point your compiler to that location, or copy and link to it in a directory for your project workspace.

If you do not want to use our installer, you can download all three files and manually install them where you want; refer to our Manual Installation Instructions.

Running the examples and writing your own code can be fairly compiler-specific, so we include instructions for Visual Studio 2015, Code::Blocks and, Cygwin/MinGW.

Visual Studio 2015

C++/CLI (which used to be called Managed C++) is very different from mainstream C/C++. If you must use C++/CLI, consider calling the Phidget .NET library, instead of the C API normally used from C/C++. We have no documentation for using C++/CLI. Microsoft makes free versions of Visual Studio available known as Express Editions. The Express editions are suitable for most applications, but are limited in features for more complex applications. Please see Microsoft Visual Studio for more information.

Use Our Examples

To run the examples, you first download the examples and unpack them into a folder. To load all projects in Visual Studio, go to File → Open → Project → Solution, and open Visual Studio Phidgets Examples.sln in the VCpp folder of the examples.

Since the examples were written in Visual Studio 2015, you will need to use Visual Studio 2015 or later in order to run the examples.

This will load all of the examples available for C/C++. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the HelloWorld C/C++ example.

Start by setting the HelloWorld project as your start up project.

VS setStartup.png

To run the example, click on Debug → Start Debugging. Please note that the projects, by default try to find the phidget22.h and phidget22.lib in the $(SystemDrive)\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22. If you have these files installed in another location, please change the path to the file's location accordingly. Please see the Write Your Own Code section for details.

VS Debug.png

This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:

VS exampleOutput.png

If you have a 32-bit computer (and operating system) then you may also need to adjust the platform. You can do this by selecting Win32 from the following drop down menu:

VS PlatformSelect.png

If Win32 is not a selectable option then go into the Configuration Manager and create it by selecting New... and copying the settings from x64. You should now be able to select Win32 and run the code normally.

VS newPlatform.png

After confirming that the HelloWorld example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our webpage, and then check the API documentation for it.

Once you have the C/C++ examples running, we have a teaching section below to help you follow them.

Write Your Own Code

When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. To begin:

1. Generate a new Visual C++: Win32 Console Application project with a descriptive name such as PhidgetTest.

VS NewProject1.png

2. Next, select Console Application.

VS NewProject2.png

3. Open the project properties window.

4. Navigate to Configuration Properties → C/C++.

5. Add "C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22" to the additional directories field. This step will find the phidget22.h file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.

VS IncludeDirectories.png

6. Navigate to Configuration Properties → Linker → Input.

7. Edit the additional dependencies and add "C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\phidget22.lib". This step will find the phidget22.lib file in the corresponding directory. If the file is placed in another location, please adjust the path to the file's location accordingly.

VS LinkerDependencies.png

8. The project now has access to the Phidget function calls and you are ready to begin coding.

Then, in your code, you will need to include the Phidget C/C++ library:

  #include <phidget22.h>

The same teaching section which describes the examples also has further resources for programming your Phidget.

GCC on Windows

Cygwin/MinGW

Use Our Examples

Download the examples and unpack them into a folder. Afterwards, unpack the examples. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the HelloWorld C/C++ example. Locate the HelloWorld.c file and type the following to compile the file and link the Phidget C/C++ library in a command line prompt:

Cygwin
  gcc HelloWorld.c -o HelloWorld -I"/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Phidgets/Phidget22" -L"/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Phidgets/Phidget22/x86" -lphidget22
MinGW
  gcc HelloWorld.c -o HelloWorld -I"C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22" -L"C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\x86" -lphidget22

After using gcc, you will have an executable named HelloWorld that you can run. It is assumed that phidget22.h is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22 and phidget22.lib is placed in C:\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22\x86. If the files are placed in another location, please adjust the paths to the file's location accordingly.

After using gcc, you will have an executable named HelloWorld that you can run.

This program will detect for devices that are attached/detached on the computer. Go ahead, and attach or detach your devices! Here is an example output:

MinGW example.png

After confirming that the HelloWorld example is working, you can proceed to run the example for your device. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our webpage, and then check the API documentation for it.

Write Your Own Code

When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code with Cygwin/MinGW in your favourite text editor. In your .c source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:

  #include <phidget22.h>

Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the Use Our Examples section above. To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a teaching section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.

Code::Blocks

Use Our Examples

1. Download the examples and unpack them into a folder. Here, you can find example programs for all the devices. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our webpage, and then check the API documentation for it. You will need this example source code to be copied into your Code::Blocks project later on. The easiest way to confirm that your environment is set up properly will be to compile and run the HelloWorld C/C++ example.

2. Once that that has been done, open one of the example files that you would like to run, for example HelloWorld.c. Under the Settings menu, choose "Compiler..."

CodeBlocks Compiler.png

3. Go to the "Search directories" tab, and within that select the "Compiler" tab. Add a new entry, and choose your Phidgets installation directory.

CodeBlocks SearchDirectories Compiler.png

4. Select the "Linker" tab. Add a new entry, and choose your Phidgets installation directory, but append "\x86".

CodeBlocks SearchDirectories Linker.png

5. Go to the "Linker Settings" tab and add an entry called "phidget22"

CodeBlocks LinkerSettings.png

You can now compile and run the example.

Write Your Own Code

When you are building a project from scratch, or adding Phidget function calls to an existing project, you'll need to configure your development environment to properly link the Phidget C/C++ library. Please see the Use Our Examples section for instructions.

In your .c source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:

  #include <phidget22.h>

Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the examples above.

To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a teaching section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.

OS X

C/C++ has excellent support on OS X through the gcc compiler.

The first step in using C/C++ on Mac is to install the Phidget C/C++ library. Compile and install them as explained on the Getting Started guide for your device, which you can find in its user guide. Then, the OS - OS X page also describes the different Phidget files, their installed locations, and their roles.

Use Our Examples

After installing the main Phidget library for OS X as above, you're ready to download the examples. Afterwards, unzip the file. To run the example code, you'll need to find the source code for your specific device. Then, compile the code under your platform and run it.

To compile, link the Phidget C/C++ library, and build an executable binary on OS X, do (for example, depending on the Headers location):

VERIFY THIS CODE ON A MAC

  gcc example.c -o example -F/Library/Frameworks -framework Phidget22 -I/Library/Frameworks/Phidget22.framework/Headers

After using gcc, you will have an executable named example that you can run.

Write Your Own Code

When writing your code from scratch, you must include a reference to the library header:

  #include <phidget22.h>

Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as shown in the Use Our Examples section above.

To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a teaching section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples. Even more help and references are provided from there.

Linux

C/C++ has support on Linux through the gcc compiler.

The first step in using C/C++ on Linux is to install the Phidget libraries. Compile and install them as explained on the main Linux page. That Linux page also describes the different Phidget files, their installed locations, and their roles.

Use Our Examples

After installing the Phidget libraries for Linux as above, you're ready to download and run the examples:

  • Generic C/C++ Examples

To run the example code, you'll need to download and unpack the examples, and then find the source code for your device. The source file will be named the same as the software object for your device. If you are not sure what the software object for your device is, find your Phidget on our webpage, and then check the API documentation for it. You can also use the HelloWorld program, which a basic program that can run with any Phidget. Then, compile the code under your platform and run it. When compiling, you need to link to the Phidget library.

To compile, link the Phidget libraries and build a binary executable on Linux, do the following in a terminal in the directory with example.c:

  gcc example.c -o example -lphidget22

In this case, example.c would be the .c file specific to your device. After using gcc, you will have an executable named example that you can run.

On Linux, if you have not set up your udev rules for USB access, you will need to run the program as root:

  sudo ./example

Write Your Own Code

When writing your code from scratch, you start it as you would any C/C++ code on Linux, such as within a text editor like Emacs, Vi, Gedit, or Kate. In your .c source code file, you must include a reference to the library header:

  #include <phidget22.h>

Then, you would compile your completed C/C++ code the same way as the examples above.

To learn how to write your own code for your Phidget, and to learn more about our API, we have a teaching section to help you follow the provided C/C++ examples and which has resources such as the API reference.

Edit the Examples

By following the instructions for your operating system and compiler above, you probably now have a working example and want to understand it better so you can change it to do what you want. This teaching section has resources for you to learn from the examples and write your own. Your main reference for writing C/C++ code will be the Phidget22 API Manual:

Link to API manual

Example Flow

Template:ExamplePseudocode

Code Snippets

Step One: Initialize and Open

Before using a Phidget, it must first be created and opened.

//Create
PhidgetDigitalInputHandle device;
PhidgetDigitalInput_create(&device);
 
//Open
PhidgetReturnCode ret;
ret = Phidget_open((PhidgetHandle)device);
if(ret != EPHIDGET_OK)
{
  Phidget_getErrorDescription ( returnValue, &errorString );
  printf("\n%s", errorString );
}

The variable "device" is now a handle for the Phidget. This example is specific to the Digital Input. For another device, use the correspondingly named calls in the C API.

Note that Phidget_open() opens the software object, but not hardware. So, it is not a guarantee you can use the Phidget immediately.

Also note that you can catch error codes returned by the Phidget library as we did above when using the Phidget_open() call. In other words, this should probably be present around most of your Phidget calls, especially when you are learning how to use the Phidget and debugging your code:

PhidgetReturnCode ret;
const char* errorString;
ret = /*function call here*/;
if(ret != EPHIDGET_OK)
{
  Phidget_getErrorDescription ( returnValue, &errorString );
  printf("\n%s", errorString );
}

Step Two: Wait for Attachment (plugging in) of the Phidget

To use the Phidget, it must be plugged in (attached). We can handle this simply by calling openWaitForAttachment in place of the basic open. This function works for any Phidget. openWaitForAttachment will block until a connection is made to the Phidget, or the specified timeout is exceeded:

Phidget_openWaitForAttachment((PhidgetHandle)device, 5000);

Sometimes, it makes more sense to handle the attachment via an event. This would be in instances where the Phidget is being plugged and unplugged, and you want to handle these incidents. Or, when you want to use event-driven programming because you have a GUI-driven program. In these cases, an event-driven code snippet to handle the attachment might look something like this:

void CCONV OnAttachedEventHandler(PhidgetHandle Device, void *userPtr)
{
  int serial;
  const char* deviceName;
  Phidget_getDeviceSerialNumber(Device, &serial);
  Phidget_getDeviceName(Device, &deviceName);
  printf("\nHello to Device %s, Serial Number: %d", deviceName, serial);
}

And the code to set up the event handler within the code opening your device might look like:

//Code for -creating- device here....

Phidget_setOnAttachHandler((PhidgetHandle)device,OnAttachedEventHandler, NULL)

//Code for -opening- device here....

Step Three: Do Things with the Phidget

You can read data and interact with your Phidget both by polling it for its current state (or to set a state), or by catching events that trigger when the data changes.

For a Phidget Digital Input or Output, the polling method of getting the input state or setting an output state looks something like this:

//Get the state from a digital input
int state;
PhidgetDigitalInput_getState(digitalInputDevice, &state);

//Set the duty cycle for a digital output
PhidgetDigitalOutput_setDutyCycle(digitalOutputDevice, 0);

To catch data changes via events, you would use something like this:

void CCONV OnStateChangeHandler(PhidgetDigitalInputHandle digitalInput, void *userPtr, int state)
{
  printf("State: %d", state);
}

//...

//Within the function that opens the device

// Insert code to create an Digital Input called 'device'
 
// Hook our function above into the device object
  PhidgetDigitalInput_setOnStateChangeHandler(digitalInput, OnStateChangeHandler, NULL);
 
// Insert code to open 'device'

Step Four: Close and Delete

At the end of your program, don’t forget to close and delete the device to free any locks on the Phidget that opening the device put in place!

Phidget_close((PhidgetHandle)device);
PhidgetDigitalInput_delete(&device);

C++ Events</span>

If you want to use C++ style, object-oriented events you can do that as well. The following examples show you how to do this:

Figure out how to properly load these

Main

Header

More How-To's

Link to other common pages like polling vs. events

Common Problems and Solutions/Workarounds

Issue: I am using a non US-English version of Windows, and the Visual C/C++ examples run into a linker error

Affected Operating Systems: Windows

The example projects, by default finds the phidget22.h and phidget22.lib in ${SystemDrive}\Program Files\Phidgets\Phidget22. If you are using a non US-English version of Windows, the Phidget drivers may be installed into a different location. To resolve, you will have to modify the paths to these two files. For instructions, please see your environment/compiler section.